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•    Free floating aquatic fern
•    Leaves have water-repellent hairs
•    Young leaves oval and flat on water, older leaves spongy and folded along the mid-rib
•    Long filament-like roots

Flowering Times

•    Does not flower or produce seeds

Control Measure

•    Physical – remove by hand or machine
•    Herbicides
•    Biological – in specific situations only


•    Grows extremely rapidly
•    Forms dense mats smothering other aquatic vegetation
•    Encourages mosquito breeding
•    Reproduces vegetatively from fragments

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